Molecular Plant Pathology
Expertise and Instrumentation: Fungal diseases of crop species, plant-fungal interactions, molecular genetics, functional genomics. metabolomics, mycology
Complex, molecular-level interactions between plants and pathogens ultimately determine the extent to which disease develops. Research in my lab takes systems-based approaches to characterize molecular mechanisms underlying diseases of crop species. In general, our research addresses the following fundamental questions:
• How is pathogenesis regulated in fungi and what are the links between diverse components
of pathogenesis, e.g., morphological differentiation, conidiation, and secondary metabolism?
• What are the environmental cues that trigger pathogenesis in fungi and how are they
• To what extent is the genetic regulation of pathogenesis conserved among fungal
• How do plants respond to pathogens at the molecular level and what genes are involved?
We blend a wide range of techniques and approaches in our research, including conventional and molecular genetics, functional, comparative, and evolutionary genomics, analytical chemistry, and metabolomics to explore the basis of both fungal pathogenesis and host resistance. Areas of particular interest include kernel-rotting diseases caused by mycotoxigenic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum; foliar diseases caused by species of Cercospora, including C. zeae-maydis and C. kikuchii; and diseases caused by necrotrophic fungi, such as Botrytis cinerea.
Research Accomplishments (2018)
- Frogeye leaf spot of soybean is one of the most problematic foliar diseases of soybean in Arkansas and the U.S. Anecdotally, new races of the pathogen are thought to have emerged, but rigorous data have not been available to support this concern. In 2018, the Bluhm lab confirmed the existence of new (more virulent) races of the pathogen, and mapped at least one gene associated with race specificity in the pathogen. The Bluhm lab also provided the soybean community an updated assessment of the predominant races of the pathogen throughout the U.S. This information is crucial for soybean breeders, and provides a foundation to create molecular assays to identify races of the pathogen.
- Rcs3 (from soybean cultivar Davis) is the last known bastion of genetic resistance to frogeye leaf spot of soybean. Rcs3 has been deployed widely, and there are serious concerns about how to control the disease if/when the pathogen evolves the ability to overcome Rcs3. In 2018, the Bluhm lab identified and confirmed five distinct isolates of the pathogen that can overcome Rcs3. The molecular dissection of how these isolates can overcome Rcs3 is underway. The discovery of these strains provides the soybean community advance warning that new sources of genetic resistance are urgently needed.
- Cercospora leaf blight of soybean is increasingly problematic for Arkansas growers. Management options are limited and effective genetic resistance has not been identified. In 2018, the Bluhm lab sequenced the genomes of 24 strains of the pathogen from across the U.S. This information clarified that a new species of the pathogen has become predominant and widespread, which is critical information for coordinating efforts of plant breeders.
- In 2018, unfavorable environmental conditions led to serious, widespread reductions in soybean seed quality, most of which resulted from outbreaks of seedborne diseases. The Bluhm lab performed field experiments utilizing soybean diversity panels to determine the genetic basis of resistance to seedborne diseases, an area that is surprisingly understudied. Soybean seed quality segregated in the diversity panel, which has facilitated association mapping to identify soybean genes underlying resistance and susceptibility.
- Phomopsis seed decay is one of the most common seedborne diseases of soybean. To date, very little information is available regarding how the pathogen shifts from endophytic to necrotrophic growth. In 2018, the Bluhm lab utilized molecular genetics to identify key genes in the pathogen that regulate virulence. To date, these are the only described pathogenicity genes in this organism, and will provide potential targets for transgenic resistance via host-induced gene silencing.
- New ways to control mycotoxins are urgently needed for Arkansas corn production. In 2018, the Bluhm lab developed and evaluated multiple sources of transgenic resistance. In greenhouse assays, mycotoxin accumulation was reduced by as much as 90%. Avenues for commercialization are being explored via licensing and the formation of a start-up company.
- To help growers learn more about mycotoxins and existing, practical tools for management, the Bluhm lab maintained a smartphone app titled: Mycotoxins. Available for free in Android and Apple formats, the app condenses recent research about management options into clear recommendations and information modules.
- To accelerate genetic resistance to downy mildew in vegetables and ornamentals, the Bluhm lab collaborated with the Correll lab to map resistance genes in spinach and create molecular markers for breeders. Knowledge from spinach will ultimately steer efforts in vegetable crops and ornamentals of importance to Arkansas agriculture.
- In 2018, Bluhm gave invited plenary talks at one international and two regional meetings. Other members of the Bluhm lab presented talks at regional, national, and international venues documenting research findings.
- Research productivity: In 2018, the Bluhm lab produced 9 articles for peer-reviewed journals (7 published, 2 submitted and currently in peer review). Numerous additional manuscripts are in preparation.
- Grantsmanship: In 2018, PI Bluhm was supported by 10 extramural grants, with over $500,000 allocated directly to his program this year. Funding came from diverse sources, including NSF, USDA-NIFA, and various commodity boards/organizations. Three additional grants are pending.
Bluhm teaches a graduate course in Plant Pathogenic Fungi.
- Bluhm advised 8 graduate students (3 M.S. and 5 Ph.D.).
- Bluhm served on the Graduate Advisory Committees of 11 students in 2018. Student affiliation spanned 6 departments/programs.
- Students in the Bluhm lab received numerous awards in 2018, including PhD and MS student of the year in PLPA, departmental award recognitions, and awards for research presentations at local, regional, and national venues.
- In 2018, three graduate students (1 PhD, 2 MS) and two undergraduates completed their degrees in the Bluhm lab. Graduate students were placed at Cornell University, the Max-Planck Institute, and private industry. Undergraduate students entered graduate school at the University of Arkansas and the University of Michigan.
- Ph.D. Plant Pathology, Purdue University
- M.S. Plant Pathology, Purdue University
- B.S. Chemistry, University of Oklahoma
- B.S. Botany, University of Oklahoma
Li W, Liao CJ, Mengiste T, Johal G, Bluhm BH, Woloshuk C. 201-. Expression of the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, ZmBLK1, affects disease resistance in maize. Phytopathology (submitted). (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 3.036)
Silva MP, Pereira A, Rupe JC, Bluhm BH, Gbur EE, Wood LS, Mozzoni LA, Chen P 201-. Effectiveness of a seed plate assay for evaluating charcoal rot resistance in soybean. Plant Disease (submitted). (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 2.941)
Lane B, Sharma S, Niu CX, Maina AW, Wagacha JM, Bluhm BH, Woloshuk CP. 2018. Changes in the Fungal Microbiome of Maize During Hermetic Storage in the United States and Kenya. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:2336. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 4.019)
Feng CD, Bluhm B, Shi AN, Correll JC. 2018. Development of molecular markers linked to three spinach downy mildew resistance loci. Euphytica 214:174. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 1.546)
Borges LL, Ferreira TF, Lana MG, Caliman ID, Bluhm BH, Oliveira LO. 2018. Multi-host species of Cercospora are associated with Cercospora leaf blight and purple seed stain of soybean. Tropical Plant Pathology 43:170-177. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 0.784
Zaccaron M, Sharma S, Bluhm B. 2018. MoNSTR-seq, a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing technique to characterize Agrobacterium-mediated transfer-DNA insertions in Phomopsis longicolla. Letters in Applied Microbiology 66:19-24. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 1.471)
Sharma S, Zaccaron A, Ridenour J, Allen T, Conner K, Doyle V, Price T, Sikora E, Singh R, Spurlock T, Tomaso-Peterson M, Wilkerson T, Bluhm BH. 2018. Draft genome sequence of Xylaria sp., the causal agent of taproot decline of soybean in the southern United States. Data in Brief 17:129-133. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: N/A)
Feng C, Bluhm BH, Correll J. Construction of a spinach bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library as a resource for gene identification and marker development. (Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, in press).
Gomes Soares AP, Gillin EA, Borges LL, Silva ACT Almeida AMR, Grijalba PE, Gottlieb AM, Bluhm BH, Oliveira L. 2015. More Cercospora species Infect Soybeans across the Americas than Meets the Eye. PLoS One 10(8)e0133495. doi:10.371/journal.pone.0133495.
Zeng F, Arnao E, Zhang G, Olaya G, Wullschleger J, Sierotzki H, Ming R, Bluhm BH, Bond JP, Fakhoury AM, Bradley CA. 2015. Characterization of quinone outside inhibitor fungicide resistance in Cercospora sojina and development of diagnostic tools for its identification. Plant Disease 99:544-550
Feng C, Mansouri S, Bluhm BH, du Toit L, Correll J. 2014. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of four seedborne spinach pathogens. Journal of Applied Microbiology 117:472-484.
Ridenour JB, Bluhm BH. 2014. The HAP complex in Fusarium verticillioides is a key regulator of growth, morphogenesis, and secondary metabolism. Fungal Genetics and Biology 69:52-64.
Smith JE, Mengesha B, Mengiste T, Bluhm BH. 2014. Resistance in Solanum lycopersicoides against Botrytis cinerea involves widespread transcriptional reprogramming. BMC Genomics 15:334.
Ridenour JB, Smith JE, Hirsch RL, Horevaj P, Kim H, Sharma S, Bluhm BH. 2014. UBL1 of Fusarium verticillioides encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in growth, conidiation, virulence, amylolysis and secondary metabolism. Environmental Microbiology 16: 2004-22.
Srivastava SK, Brar HK, Fakhoury AM, Bluhm BH, Huang X, Bhattacharyya M. 2014. Analyses of the genome sequence of Fusarium virguliforme, the fungal pathogen that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. PLoS ONE 9(1): e81832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081832 .
Kim H, Newell A, Fakhoury A, Rupe J, and Bluhm BH. 2013. Mating-type distribution and genetic diversity of the soybean pathogen Cercospora sojina in Arkansas. Phytopathology 103:1045-1051.
Malapi-Wight M, Smith J, Campbell J, Bluhm BH, Shim WB. 2013. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor, is involved in Polyol Metabolism and Fumonisin B1 Production in Fusarium verticillioides. PLoS ONE 8(7): e67656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067656.
Li S, Ridenour J, Kim H, Hirsch L, Rupe J, and Bluhm BH. 2013. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the soybean pathogen Phomopsis longicolla. Journal of Microbiological Methods 92:244-245.
Smith JE, Lay JO, and Bluhm BH. 2012. Metabolic fingerprinting reveals a new genetic linkage between ambient pH and metabolites associated with desiccation tolerance in Fusarium verticillioides. Metabolomics 8:376-385.
Molecular Ecology Resources Primer Development Consortium, Andris M, Arias MC, Barthel BL, Bluhm BH, Bried J, Canal D, Chen XM, Cheng P, Chiappero MB, Coelho MM, Collins AB, Dash M, Davis MC, Duarte M, Dubois MP, Françoso E, Galmes MA, Gopal K, Jarne P, Kalbe M, Karczmarski L, Kim H, Martella MB, Mcbride RS, Negri V, Negro JJ, Newell AD, Piedade AF, Puchulutegui C, Raggi L, Samonte IE, Sarasola JH, See DR, Seyoum S, Silva M, Solaro C, Tolley KA, Tringali M, Vasemägi A, Xu LS, Zanón-Martínez J. 2012. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 – 31 March 2012. Molecular Ecology Resources 12:779–781.
Horevaj P, and Bluhm BH. 2012. BDM1 of Fusarium graminearum regulates virulence during infection of wheat and maize. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 431-444.
Kim H, Smith JE, Ridenour JB, Woloshuk CP, and Bluhm BH. 2011. HXK1 regulates carbon metabolism, fungal development, fumonisin B1 production, and pathogenesis in Fusarium verticillioides. Microbiology-SGM 157:2658-2669.
Goodwin SB, Ben M’Barek S, Dhillon B, Wittenberg AHJ, Crane CF, Van der Lee TAJ, Grimwood J, Aerts A, Antoniw J, Bailey A, Bluhm B, Bowler J, Bristow J, Canto-Canche B, Churchill A, Conde-Ferraez L, Cools H, Coutinho PM, Csukai M, Dehal P, De Wit P, Donzelli B, Foster AJ, Hammond-KOsack K, Hane J, Henrissat B, Kilian A, Koopmann E, Kourmpetis Y, Kuzniar A, Lindquist E, Lombard V, Maliepaard C, Martins N, Mehrabi R, Oliver R, Ponomarenko A, Rudd J, Salamov A, Schmutz J, Schouten JH, Shapiro H, Stergiopoulos I, Torriani SFF, Tu H, de Vries RP, Wiebenga A, Zwiers LH, Grigoriev IV, Kema GHJ. Finished Genome of Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Stealth Pathogenesis and Extreme Plasticity. 2011. PLOS Genetics 7(6): e1002070. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070.
Horevaj P, Milus EA, and Bluhm BH. 2011. A real-time qPCR assay to quantify Fusarium graminearum biomass in wheat kernels. Journal of Applied Microbiology 111:396-406.
Kim H, Ridenour JB, Dunkle LD, and Bluhm BH. 2011. Regulation of Stomatal Tropism and Infection by Light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: Evidence for Coordinated Host/Pathogen Responses to Photoperiod? PLOS Pathogens 7 e1002113.
Kim H, Ridenour JB, Dunkle LD, and Bluhm BH. 2011. Regulation of pathogenesis by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: an updated perspective. Plant Pathology Journal 27:103-109.
Bluhm BH, Burnham AM, Dunkle LD. 2010. A circadian rhythm regulating hyphal melanization in Cercospora kikuchii. Mycologia 102:1221-1228.
Correll JC, Bluhm BH, Feng C, Lamour K, du Toit LG, Koike ST. 2010. Spinach: Better management of downy mildew and white rust through genomics. European Journal of Plant Pathology 129:193-205.
Ma, L-J., Charlotte van der Does, H., Borkovich, K.A., Coleman, J.J., Daboussi, M-J., Pietro, A.D., Dufresne, M., Freitag, M., Grabherr, M., Henrissat, B., Houterman, P.M., Kang, S., Shim, W-B., Woloshuk, C., Xie, X., Xu, J-R., Antoniw, J., Baker, S.E., Bluhm, B.H., Breakspear, A., Brown, D.W., Butchko, R.A.E., Chapman, S., Coulson, R., Coutinho, P.M., Danchin, E.G.J., Diener, A., Gale, L.R., Gardiner, D.M., Goff, S., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Hilburn, K., Hua-Van, A., Jonkers, W., Karzan, K., Kodira, C.D., Koehrsen, M., Kumar, L., Lee, Y-H., Li, L., Manners, J.M., Miranda-Saavedra, D., Mukherjee, M., Park, G., Park, J., Park, S-Y., Proctor, R.H., Regev, A., Ruiz-Roldan, M.C., Sain, D., Sakthikumar, S., Sykes, S., Schwartz, D.C., Turgeon, B.G., Wapinski, I., Yoder, O., Young, S., Zeng, Q., Zhou, S., Galagan, J., Cuomo, C.A., Kistler, H.C., Rep, M. 2010. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium. Nature 464:367-373.
Hirsch RL, TeBeest DO, Bluhm BH, West CP. 2010. First Report of Rust Caused by Puccinia emaculata on Switchgrass in Arkansas. Plant Disease 94:381.
Bluhm BH, Dhillon B, Lindquist EA, Kema GHJ, Goodwin SB, Dunkle LD. 2008. Expressed sequence tags derived from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes differentially expressed during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. BMC Genomics 9:523.
Bluhm BH, Dunkle LD. 2008. PHL1 of Cercospora zeae-maydis encodes a member of the photolyase/cryptochrome family involved in UV protection and fungal development. Fungal Genetics and Biology 45:1364-1372.
Bluhm BH, Kim H, Butchko RA, Woloshuk CP. 2008. Involvement of ZFR1 of Fusarium verticillioides in kernel colonization and the regulation of FST1, a putative sugar transporter gene required for fumonisin biosynthesis on maize kernels. Molecular Plant Pathology 9:203-211.
Bluhm BH, Zhao X, Flaherty JE, Xu JR, Dunkle L. 2007. RAS2 regulates growth and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 20:627-636.
AbuQamar S, Chen X, Dhawan R, Bluhm B, Salmeron J, Lam S, Dietrich RA, Mengiste T. 2006. Expression profiling and mutant analysis reveals complex regulatory networks involved in Arabidopsis response to Botrytis infection. Plant Journal 48:28-44.
Bluhm BH, Woloshuk CP. 2006. Fck1, a C-type cyclin-dependent kinase, interacts with Fcc1 to regulate development and secondary metabolism in Fusarium verticillioides. (Cover article). Fungal Genetics and Biology 43:146-154.
Veronese P, Nakagami H, Bluhm B, AbuQamar S, Chen X, Salmeron J, Dietrich RA, Hirt H, Mengiste T. 2006. The membrane-anchored BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 plays distinct roles in Arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. Plant Cell 18:257-273.
Bluhm BH, Woloshuk CP. 2005. Amylopectin induces fumonisin B-1 production by Fusarium verticillioides during colonization of maize kernels. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18:1333-1339.
Cooley C, Bluhm BH, Reuhs BL, Woloshuk CP. 2005. Glass-fiber disks provide suitable medium to study polyol production and gene expression in Eurotium rubrum. Mycologia 97:743-750.
Veronese P, Chen X, Bluhm B, Salmeron J, Dietrich R, Mengiste T. 2004. The BOS loci of Arabidopsis are required for resistance to Botrytis cinerea infection. Plant Journal 40:558-574.
Bluhm BH, Cousin MA, Woloshuk CP. 2004. Multiplex real-time PCR detection of fumonisin-producing and trichothecene-producing groups of Fusarium species. Journal of Food Protection 67:536-543.
Flaherty JE, Pirttila AM, Bluhm BH, Woloshuk CP. 2003. PAC1, a pH-regulatory gene from Fusarium verticillioides. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69:5222-5227.
Bluhm BH, Flaherty JE, Cousin MA, Woloshuk CP. 2002. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential detection of trichothecene- and fumonisin-producing species of Fusarium in cornmeal. Journal of Food Protection 65:1955-1961.
Other Peer-Reviewed Publications
Ojiambo PS, Battilani P, Cary JW, Bluhm BH, Carbone I. 2018. Cultural and Genetic Approaches to Manage Aflatoxin Contamination: Recent Insights Provide Opportunities for Improved Control. Phytopathology 108:1024-1037. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 3.036)
Liversage J, Coetzee MPA, Bluhm BH, Berger DK, Crampton BG. 2018. LOVe across kingdoms: Blue light perception vital for growth and development in plant-fungal interactions. Fungal Biology Reviews 32:86-103. (2017 JCR Impact Factor: 3.976)
Xu, JR, Bluhm BH (Editors). 2011. Methods in Molecular Microbiology: Fungal Genomics. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, USA
Book Chapters and Reviews
Ridenour J, Hirsch RL, Bluhm BH. 2012. Functional genomics in Fusarium verticillioides. In: Methods in Molecular Biology: Plant Fungal Pathogens. M. Bolton and B. Thomma, Eds. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, USA.
Smith JE, Bluhm BH. 2011. Fungal secondary metabolomics. In: Methods in Molecular Microbiology: Fungal Genomics. J.R. Xu and B.H. Bluhm, Eds. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, USA.
Bluhm BH, Zhao X. 2010. Measuring protein kinase and sugar kinase activity in filamentous fungi. In: Methods in Molecular Microbiology: Molecular and Cell Biology Methods for Fungi. A. Sharon, Ed. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, USA.
Bluhm BH. 2010. Molecular aspects of plant disease resistance (Book review). Journal of Environmental Quality 39:1533.
- Elected Vice President (2018) of the Southern Soybean Disease Workers (SSDW) Group. Responsibilities in 2018 include organizing the 46th Annual SSDW Meeting at Pensacola Beach, FL in March, 2019, and providing leadership for the organization.
- Editorial Boards:
-- Phytopathology, Senior Editor (flagship journal of the American Phytopathological Society)
-- Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, member of the Editorial Board (journal of the American Phytopathological Society)
-- Phytoparasitica, member of the Editorial Board (flagship journal of the Israeli Phytopathological Society)
- Member of the American Phytopathological Society Foundation Board of Directors (2015 – 2019).
- Member of the American Phytopathological Society (2002 – present).
- Member of the Molecular and Cellular Phytopathology Committee
- Member of the Mycotoxicology Committee
- Ad hoc reviewer: Plant Disease, Phytopathology, and Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
- Chaired the Plant Sciences Review Panel for the Oklahoma Council for the Advancement of Science and Technology (Oklahoma City, OK). Impact: Over $800,000 of grant funds were disbursed through the activity of the panel.
- Member of the Steering Committee for the Aflatoxin Mitigation Center of Excellence (AMCOE), a U.S. corn grower-funded organization formed to support research designed to eliminate aflatoxin contamination of corn. My primary responsibility is to provide recommendations to state commodity groups regarding funding decisions and assist with other logistical aspects.
Service to the University of Arkansas:
- Member of the Administrative Board for the University of Arkansas Environmental Dynamics Program. 2017 – current.
- Member of the University of Arkansas Building Facilities Committee, 2017 – current.
Service to the UA Bumpers College of Agriculture, Food, and Life Sciences:
- AFLS Scholarship Committee (member, 2014 – current).
- Panelist, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture’s John W. White team award.
Burt Bluhm and Alex Zaccaron created Mycotoxins, a smartphone App that provides growers and other stakeholders practical information about how to identify, and remediate, mycotoxin problems in corn. The Apple version became available in November, 2017; an Android version was released in March, 2018.
Mycotoxins was downloaded from the Apple Store 497 times from 12/01/2017 to 11/29/2018. Most of the users (81%) are from the US, followed by Canada, Italy, and various other countries. In the same period, Mycotoxins has been downloaded from Google Play at least 100 times (exact download numbers are not currently available), and has received an average review score of 4.9 out of 5 stars.
Coverage in Popular Press (From 1/1/18 - 12/1/18):
3.28.18. Ashley News Observer (AR) -- Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins (Burt Bluhm)
3.28.18. Advance Monticellonian (AR) -- Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins
3.28.18. McGehee Dermott Times (AR) -- Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins
3.28.18. – Pine Bluff Commercial (AR) -- Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins
4.2.18. Delta Farm Press (Regional/National) – New mobile app helps corn farmers identify ear rot, mycotoxins https://www.deltafarmpress.com/corn/new-mobile-app-helps-corn-farmers-identify-ear-rot-mycotoxins
4.4.18. Booneville Democrat (AR) – Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins
4.4.18. Johnson Co Graphic (AR) – Mobile App Can Help Growers To Identify Corn Ear Rot, Mycotoxins
9.30.18 – Morning AgClips (IN) – App corn ear rot and Mycotoxin Management
10.2.18 – Farm Journal’s AGPRO (Regional/National) – Don’t Let Ear Rots Gunk Up Harvest
10.18.18 – Wallace’s Farmer (IA) – Identify ear mold, mycotoxin problems in corn
10.29.18 – Wallace’s Farmer (IA) – Dealing with Corn Quality Concerns